Social Stories are a fantastic tool for you to exchange information with a child, it provides a mechanism to introduce or discuss social interaction.
What are Social Stories?
A social story is a description (often with visual aids) about everyday activities or events that detail specific information relating to the situation and what to expect. They were devised by Carol Gray to assist people with autism to understand and improve social skills. Social stories accurately describe a context, skill or achievement and are tailored specifically for the audience. The purpose is to model appropriate social interaction- there are many social skills that most of us take for granted that are particularly difficult for people with autism to understand, social stories are one tool that can be helpful.
Social Stories as developed by Carol Gray should follow a specific criteria and more information can be found on her website.
The topics you use for your social stories should be determined by your audience and what might they benefit from / need to know. Social stories can relate to personal care such as getting dressed, putting your shoes on and washing your hands. They can also be about social skills like building friendships, how to play with others and how to understand other people’s reactions. The stories could be information relating to a situation such as going to the hairdressers or supermarket or about behavioural strategies for example ‘it is ok to feel angry but it is not ok to hit, next time ….’.
It is important that social stories are used for positive feedback at least 50% of the time and not always about behaviour you need to change, use them to celebrate achievements. My son is autistic and at three years old he is still non-verbal, the use of social stories has really helped me to communicate things to him that I know he will understand. The first time I used a social story was when he was two and it was about not hitting other children. This had been passed onto me so had not been written directly for him, it used symbols rather than pictures and at the time probably meant very little to him, furthermore it had more text than pictures which was too advanced for him at this stage. This had not been a successful introduction to social stories for me, however fast forward a year and after a class on social stories I wrote one directly for my son. It was very simple only four lines of text:
‘J was reading his book, J said a word, and mummy was very happy, well done J’
Alongside the text it has nine photos or symbols (I used a mixture), there are photos of me and my son and symbols such as book and speaking. The difference was instant, as soon as we sat and read it the first time he clearly understood, he ran to get his book that we had been reading when he had spoken a word and looked through it with me. I now have a few different social stories that we use, some are very targeted at my son, others are more general. He often refuses to read one about going to the hairdressers but this is because he hates getting his haircut, for me I am pleased it is clear he understands it.
Who are Social Stories for?
Social Stories have been designed to support people with autism, having said that you can certainly use a version of social stories with all children. Some children don’t take kindly to being told how to behave so a targeted bedtime story about a child doing good behaviour may be useful, very small children may benefit from supporting visuals alongside text relating to situations. Reading the social stories to groups of children will help if you feel the child will struggle if they think the message is targeted to them, it all depends on the individual’s needs. So far I have only worked on very basic social stories as that is the level for my son. As a child’s ability to read develops the focus can move towards the text and away from the visuals, the stories will increase in length and complexity with the child. For older kids it may be worth looking at comic strip conversations.
How do I write a social story?
Social stories initially need to be short and with clear information, they should have the picture then words alongside, if your child is very young I would use more photos, if they are familiar with certain symbol systems use them, the idea is to use a format they will understand and be able to engage with.
Think carefully about what the message is you want to convey, what is the situation? What aspects don’t they understand? What information do they need to cope better with the situation? How could you use a social script? The aim is to keep it clear, simple and focused so the message does not get lost. If you have lots of ideas do several different social stories and introduce them one at a time.
Read the stories at an appropriate time, don’t pull them out as a punishment, you need to be calm, patient and positive when sharing the social stories. Ensure the environment is comfortable and quiet, I tend to read them just before bed or at the table after a meal as these are times I know my child is more likely to pay attention. If you have a story about going to the dentist, read it for a few weeks or months before you actually go as this will give the child time to digest the information and feel familiar enough with the story to help it make a difference. If you are sharing social stories with children who ask what it is for be honest with them, explain why you are sharing the story with them (you are teaching them something). Review the story as often as needed, the more frequently you look at it together the more comfortable they will become with the content. Also leave the stories somewhere accessible so the child can access them when they want to.
If you have social stories that are specifically for your child share them with others such as grandparents, teachers, support workers- the more people that read the same story the better. Try to only introduce one story at a time, focus on one thing at a time and go at your child’s pace. Make sure you read script exactly as it is written as it needs to stay the same each time it is read, this consistency is very important. I write mine on a computer using Word or PowerPoint and I use laminated card as it will last longer, it is my understanding that you can get free apps to help write social stories so they may be worth looking for.
- Try to always end the social stories on a positive like a happy face.
- Limit the early ones to five steps.
- Write in the 1st or 3rd person not ‘you’ – it shouldn’t feel targeted. Older children generally prefer the 3rd
- Avoid words that can be misinterpreted and avoid the word ‘change’. Instead of different or new then try other words like better or more – keep it positive.
- Make sure you use words they understand.
- Be careful not to teach something in any context e.g. do not say ‘yes’ to adults all the time.
- Reassure – all emotions and feelings are ok – ‘IT IS OK!!’
- Keep it visual
Ideas for early year’s social stories.
‘In nursery we use gentle hands, we need to remember no hitting, everyone will be pleased if I use gentle hands with my friends.’
‘I don’t like X I sometimes feel sad and upset. This is OK. It is normal to feel sad and upset when I do something I don’t want to’
‘It is important that I X because…’
Try to use positive symbols at the end of the stories, for example:
Click on the link below for one of my social stories about saying hello when we see our friends.